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- The voyages of Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, 1595-1606
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- Pedro Fernandes de Queirós - Wikipedia
- Pedro Fernandes de Queirós
His son was Viceroy of Peru XXXV looked upon Quiros as a very discontented and dangerous man, who might sell his knowledge and services to the English. The best course would be, they thought, to keep him quiet in Madrid by promises. He might be employed to draw maps and charts. If he continued to insist upon going to Peru, a letter of recommendation might be given to him for the Viceroy. But it was further suggested that the letter of Iturbe should also be sent to the Viceroy, with a contra-despacho, leaving the matter to his discretion, with orders to entertain Quiros and his proposals, but not to despatch his business.
This treachery was the final conclusion when Quiros started. Worn out by delays and obstruction, worried almost to death by Councils and Committees, he gladly accepted the promise to give him command of an expedi- tion. Ignorant of the contra-despacko, he put his trust in the honour of the new Viceroy of Peru, a great man, Don Francisco de Borja, Prince of Esquilache, 1 with whom he proceeded on the voyage to Peru, accompanied by his wife and two children.
He thought that at length, after years of wearisome solicitation, his grand ideas were to be realised. Fortunately for the brave enthusiast, he was saved from the anguish of being undeceived by a timely death at Panama on his way out. He died at the age of fifty, quite worn out and driven to his grave by Councils and Committees, with their futile talk, needless delays, and endless obstruction. His faithful Secretary, Belmonte Bermudez, who had edited the Memorials for him, stood by him to the last. He was Prince of Esquilache by right of his wife, and his age was thirty-two when he went out as Viceroy of Peru in He reached Lima in December.
The ideas of Quiros respecting an Antarctic continent were, no doubt, fixed in his mind by seeing the coast-lines delineated by the map-makers of his time. It, therefore, becomes very interesting to trace this southern coast-line on the principal maps from the time of Ortelius down to the last map that showed it before Captain Cook's second voyage finally disproved its existence.
Basil Soulsby has kindly prepared a note on this subject, which follows the Introduction. The voyage of Quiros was the first event in the story of Antarctic enterprise. Its object was the discovery of the Southern Continent and the annexation of the South Pole. It was the dream of an enthusiast. It was a failure, but not altogether a barren failure. Others of another nation were to follow up his idea.
He fell, worried to death by Committees. But he opened the glorious record of Antarctic discovery. Captain Cook first crossed the Antarctic circle, and searched all round it for the supposed coast- lines of Quiros. The achievements of the peoples of the Iberian peninsula were of vast importance to the world ; but they came to an end with the voyage of Quiros. The mantle of discovery fell on other shoulders. James Ross followed Cook in realising the dream of Quiros ; and now we recognise Robert Falcon Scott as the greatest and most successful of Antarctic discoverers.
In he settled at Madrid. Then appeared his Aurora de Cristo and Hispalica. With British Museum press-marks. In Abraham Orte- lius's Atlas. The Terra Australis, with Beach provincia aurifera, extends right across the world, and from the Tropic of Capricorn to the S. New Guinea appears as an island. The Molucca Islands are shown. Universi Orbis seu Terreni Globi in piano effigies. New Guinea forms one end of the Terra Australis, in which Terra del Fuego appears in the centre, and which stretches across the whole Circulus Antarcticus.
In Abraham Ortelius's Atlas. The Solomon Islands, discovered in 1 , appear with this name for the first time. Orbis Terrae Compendiosa Descriptio. The Terra Australis, but without the Solomon Islands. Java Minor appears to the S. Totius Orbis cogniti universalis Descriptio. New Guinea an island. Otherwise as in 2. Orbis Terrarum Typus De Integro multis in locis emendatus. Ortelius' Atlas, Latin edition. A New Accurate Mappe of the World. New Guinee is shown. Hexham's English edition of G. The Terra Australis, with the Beach province, is defined in very faint outline.
The Ladrones appear, also Baixos de S. The Solomon Islands are not given. Nova et accuratissima totius Terrarum Orbis Tabula. The large Terra Australis has dis- appeared. Hollandia Nova is outlined, but N. Guinea is only partially outlined. Zelandia Nova has a western coast-line only. Antonii Van Diemans Landt is partly outlined. A New Map of the Terraqueous Globe according to the latest discoveries and most general divisions of it into continents and oceans. Well's "A New Sett of Maps. The smaller islands are not named. The Beach Province is only partially outlined.
Nearly all the islands in the New Hebrides mentioned by Quiros are shown. Carte Universelle de tout le Monde. Terra Australis, showing Beach provincia aurifera, extends right across the Antarctic Circle. Petan Island and Java Minor are to the E. Nova Guinea jam recens detecta ab I. Lamero, is partly shown in outline. Terra di Quir, N.
Nova Guinea appears as an island. Terra Magellanica embraces the Arctic Circle. Nova Olanda is shown, but without the E. The smaller islands are not given. New Zealand appears in outline. Orbis Terrarum nova et accuratissima Tabula. Auctore Joanne a Loon. The islands mainly as in No. Guinea and Hollandia Nova are shown in outline on W. Van Diemen's Land shown in detail. The Terra Australis does not extend across the Antarctic Circle. Nova Orbis Tabula in Lucem edita a F. The small islands are as in No.
Guinea and Hollandia Nova join, and the western coast is outlined. Zelandia Nova is outlined also on the W. Australia Incognita is printed round the circle of the S. Orbis Terrarum Nova et Accuratissima Tabula. Jaillot's " Nouveau Atlas. Nouvelle Guinee and Nouvelle Hollande are joined, and are outlined on the W. Terre de Diemen is outlined on the S. The following- routes, in dotted lines, are shown: Mendana and Gallego, Mendana and Quiros, An English Pilot, reported by Robert Dudley, c. Olivier du Nord, Le Maire and Cornelius Schouten, Terre que la flote de Mendana crut tre la Nle.
Guinee occurs in lat. Guinee and Nouvelle Hollande are connected, and shown on W. The smaller islands are not shown. A New and Correct Map of the World. New Guinea and New Holland are not connected, but the E. Diemen's Land is given, due S. Holland, between 39 and The smaller islands are as in No.
The voyages of Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, 1595-1606
Par Guillaume De L'Isle. De L'Isle's Atlas, Mainly as in No. Mendana's "New Guinea" appears as the Solomon Islands. Hollandia Nova nearly complete. Most of Quiros' smaller islands are shown. Zelandia Nova, and Antoni van Diemen's Land are partly shown. Jacques occur both in Quiro Regio and in Zelandia Nova. The continent of Terra Australis, across the S. Regio habitata detecta per Mendana, occurs between 10 and 20 N. Terra quam vidit Mendana occurs on the Equator, Long.
Jaques occurs in Zeelandia Nova, 40 S. The smaller islands are shown. Terres Australes, Nouvelle Hollande, W. Terre Australe du St. Jordan, Port de la Vraie Croix, R. Philippe , shown in outline, E. Cape de la Circoncision, Jan. In Robert de Vaugondy's Atlas Universel. Terres et isles vues par Quiros en , shown with- out names. New Guinea continent as in No. Esprit, is shown, Long. Palairet's "Atlas Methodi- que. Hemisphere Occidental ou du Nouveau Monde. Hemisphere Oriental ou de 1'Ancien Monde.
Nouvelle Guinea and Nouvelle Hollande are one. Esprit, Terre de Quiros, appear due E. Nouvelle Zeelande and Terre de Diemen are partly outlined. Map of the World, after D'Anville. Tierra del Spiritu Santo, Land of Quiros, is shown. New Zealand, with two islands, appears in detail ; New Holland, with New South Wales, and Van Diemen's Land, also appears with a complete coast-line, for the first time.
Tierra delEspiritu Santo, and the rest of the New Hebrides, are shown in very complete detail. Terre de Kerguelen appears 50 S. The map is an improvement on , but Nouvelle Guinee is not shown complete, and Terre de Diemen is still part of Australia. New World or Western Hemisphere. East- ern Hemisphere or Old World. Shows Cook's Track, Van Diemen's Land is part of Terra Australis. The smaller islands are clear and more correct. Chart of the Pacific Ocean.
Van Diemen's Land shown as an island. New Guinea only partly shown, and in outline. Map of the World, after d'Anville, by T. Tierra del Spiritu Santo now appears as part of the New Hebrides. Otherwise as in No. Chart containing the greater part of the South Sea, etc. By Laurie and Whittle. New Zeeland, in two islands. Route of Mendana in shown. Below the Society Islands, " Islands seen by Quiros. In " Gary's New Universal Atlas," New Guinea is not complete, and in outline. The islands are as in Laurie and Whittle. Carte Gdnerale de 1'Ocean Pacifique.
In Krusenstern's "Atlas de 1'Ocean Pacifique. Carte d'Assemblage de POceanie. Guinee are shown in complete outline. New Zealand in three islands. The smaller islands are now as before. Stieler's " Hand- Atlas. The World, on Mercator's Projection. First use of the name of Australia for New Holland in a general Atlas. New South Wales still extends to the Gulf of Carpentaria. The Solomon Islands, New Hebrides, and the other islands are now completely shown. New Zealand, without inland towns, in three islands. Terra Australis or Australia occurs in the Atlas to Capt. Matthew Flinders's "Voyage to Terra Australis, Arrowsrnith's Map of the Pacific Ocean, , the dates of discovery are given to most of the islands.
This is the best modern map of Quiros's islands. The Atlases between and do not show much change or much detail. Gaua Santa Maria and the other islands are shown on a large scale. Malo Island to Efate Island. This is on a much larger scale, and gives the islands in full detail, surveyed by H. This is a new edition of No. The islands are shown in much more exact detail, and with more in- formation. In Edward Stanford's London Atlas. This is a very excellent and clear map ; scale, i: Apnd foachimum de Ibarra: Major's " Early Voyages to Terra Aus- tralis. Paris, I77 1 - 4- The map at p.
Cook marked in pencil by himself. Translated by Johann Reinhold Forster. Histoire des Navigations aux Terres Australes. Ineditos para la historia de Espana. See Fernandez de Navarrete Martin. See Pacheco Joaquin Francisco. The Discovery of Australia. Illustrations, Charts, Maps, etc. Cook James , Captain. Cronica de la religiosissima provincia de la Orden de San Francisco. A copy in the Library at Lima.
Printed for the author: See Fernandez Duro Cesario. Ercilla y Zuniga Alonso de. La Araucana de Don A. Coleccion de documentos ine"ditos para la historia de Espana. See Quiros Pedro Fernandez de. See Suarez de Figueroa. See Hudson Henry , the navigator. See Le Sage Alain Rene'. Hudson Henry the Navigator. Descriptio ac Delineatio Geographica Detectionis Freti. Ferdinandez de Quir, etc.
Detectio Freti Hudsoni, or H. Passage, Siberia and Australia. Reproduced with the maps, in photolithography, in Dutch and Latin after the editions of and Augmented with a new English transla- tion by F. This entry does not occur under Hudson in the British Museum Catalogue. Relaciones geograficas de Indias. Noticias secretas de America.
Secretario de Estado y presentadas en informe secreto a S. Juan y a de Ulloa. Sacadas a luz para el verda- dero conocimiento del gobierno de los Espanoles en la America meridional por de Barry. Informe del Intendente de Guamanga Don D. O'Higgins al Ministro de Indias. See Jimenez de La Espada Marcos]. Le Sage Alain Rene. Histoire de Gil Bias de Santillane. Collection des Classiques Frangois. See Vicuna Mac Kenna Benjamin. Major Richard Henry , of the British Museum. Early Voyages to Terra Australis, now called Australia.
A collection of documents, and extracts from early MSS. Edited with an Introduction by R. Sucesos de las Islas Philipinas. Mexici ad Indos, Stanley [Lord Stanley of Alderley]. See Fernandez de Navarrete M. Segunda serie, publicada por la Real Academia de la Historia. Quiros Pedro Fernandez de. See also Hudson Henry , the Navigator. Historia del descubrimiento de las regiones Austriales hecho por el General Pedro Fernandez de Quiros. Publicada por Don Justo Zaragoza. El Capitan Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, etc. Von dem new erfundnem vierten Theil der Welt, so bissher in Mappis der Land [t]afflen Terra Australis incognita genannt, und desselben Lander Fernandez de Quir, concerning the population and discovery of the fourth part of the world, Australia the unknown, its great riches and fertility.
From the Spanish [" Relacion de un Memorial. Spanish and English, pp. Another Petition in Spanish, giving an account of his discoveries. Memorial presented to Philip II of Spain. Relation of a Memorial presented In "Callander John Terra Australis cognita. In "Charton Edouard , Voyageurs anciens et modernes.
Another copy in Library of the Ministry of Marine, Madrid. Informaciones presentados por el Capitan Pedro Fernandez de Quiros para paser a las Indias con su mujer y hijos, en la casa de contratacion de Sevllla, 24 Marzo, Regi Hispanise facta super tractu Recentes Novi Orbis Historise. Descriptio ac Delineatio Geographica detectionis Freti, etc. Journal van de Nassausche Vloot. Prim era quarenta y ocho parte de Comedias escogidas de los mejores de Espana. Catalogo de Comedias, 1 68 1. Hechos de Don G. Hurtado de Mendoza, quarto Marques de Canete. In "Coleccion de Historiadores de Chile.
Ulloa Antonio de , Admiral. Relacion historica [by A. History of Juan Fernandez. Recounts the departure from Callao. ANY years having passed in silence since the first voyage of Alvaro Mendana, God was served that in the city of Kings, residence of Vice- roys of Peru, the enterprise should be proclaimed which His Majesty had ordered the Adelantado 1 Alvaro Mendana to under- take to the Isles of Solomon. He hoisted his flag, his Captain being his brother-in-law, Lorenzo Barreto ; and he sent another Captain, named Lope de Vega, to the valleys of Truxillo and Sana, with orders to recruit men and collect provisions.
The Adelantado met with some diffi- culties and obstacles in fitting out the expedition, which 1 An office corresponding to the President or Governor of a province. Prcefectus, " Adelante," in front ; more advanced than others. With the diligence he exer- cised, he persuaded and induced Pedro Fernandez de Quiros to come with him as Captain and Chief Pilot.
The Pilot de Quiros had raised several points with the Adelan- tado in the conversations they had together respecting the conduct of the voyage, both in going and returning ; but all were settled, and he ended by resolving to join the expedition. The disorders which took place in this expedition were 1 Here Suarez de Figuaroa inserts the following speech, made by the Marquis of Canete to Mendana. On one of the many occasions when Alvaro de Mendana then fitting out had interviews with the Viceroy to communicate some particulars and to kiss his hand for the many kindnesses and favours he had received from him, his Excellency said: There are so many glorious leaders of our nation who have acted thus, that might be named, that I undoubtedly should tire my tongue in enumerating them and my memory in bringing them to mind.
On the other side their valiant followers have always been, on these occasions, loyal and obedient, and full of courtesy and virtue both in word and deed. If in the present age these generalities suffer from some exceptions, it is not the fault of the men. Various times bring forth misfortunes. A few years soon pass in the harvest of valour, and few good things are known of the leaders. This is especially the case in maritime expeditions where the incon- veniences and difficulties are innumerable, while the remedies that can be applied to them are few and of little efficacy.
Certain ancient mariners make a notable clamour, in whose eyes our ancestors were so excellent that they hold them in great veneration. But they all made furrows in the eastern sea ; very little was done by them on the western side, which scarcely puts limits to the imagination.
The stars of the eighth heaven are unequal in dimen- sions, for some appear to our vision great, and others so small that they are scarcely visible. There are those who say that if one of these should be wanting in heaven there would be equivalent loss on earth. I mean that the most minute circumstance that has ceased to do harm may have its effect on the course of events. The Master of the Camp 1 embarked, and the first thing he did was to interfere with the Boatswain in matters pertaining to his office, using words to him which oblige side some navigators have been eminent.
In the first rank is Columbus, who, being despised by various sovereigns, made his discovery finally for the Catholic ones, Isabella and Ferdinand, and showed America, the foundation on which has been built so many and such important edifices, alike spiritual as temporal. He was suc- ceeded by the wonderful Cortes, with his extensions of empire and his marvellous deeds. In the part where we are now was the famous Francisco Pizarro, conqueror of so many provinces.
Then came Magellan, who nearly went round the world, and came to an end which was less fortunate than his spirit deserved. Next Gama sought remote regions, and opened to the nation the commerce of the east. Valiant it need not be denied were the audacious enterprises of Drake, Cavendish, and Hawkins, emulous of the fame of Magellan. Traversing the strait which bears Magellan's name, they came to disturb the seas which for many previous years had been secure and peaceful. But this notwithstanding, it appears to me that I now behold in you a discoverer not less distinguished and famous than those.
It has been so in all countries, in times past, that important affairs have been entrusted to him who, either by reason of his genius, or the dignity of his person, or the purity of his life, or his grace and authority, had acquired the universal fame of a true umpire of peace and war, justly committing to his prudence the preservation and prosperity of the state. It is certain that all these qualifications are combined in your person.
Your actions prove it, and confirm the choice made by His Majesty for so great a service to God and to him. I hold that there can be no doubt that your established government will be glorious and triumphant, and that the people in your company will remain under it ; so that, almost from this time thanks may be given to you for your great industry and valour. He was an old soldier named Pedro Merino Manrique.
The name is given by Suarez de Figueroa. The Boatswain excused himself and the Master of the Camp, wishing to be avenged, certain persons in the accounts department prevented him. At the same time the Chief Pilot was talking to Dona Isabel, who said: If that is the way in which he asserts his position, he may have a prosperous end, though I am very far from thinking so. The Master of the Camp replied with great impertinence: The Master of the Camp then said, in a loud voice: Under- stand that I am the Master of the Camp, and if we sail together in one ship, and I ordered the ship to be run on some rock, what would you do?
Believe me that if you want to be lord of all that is about to be discovered, rather than be under the orders of one who takes so much upon himself, and shows so little discretion, I would give up the voyage. The Pilot valued their good will, but answered that he did not come to form parties. I leave the rest that passed on this occasion. The Adelantado came on board, and, as he said that he would apply a suitable remedy to what had occurred, the Chief Pilot remained. Of what happened to the fleet until it reached the port of Payta, and what ports it touched at.
A boat was sent on shore, but presently returned with a report that the beach was full of armed men, who prevented any landing. The night passed, and when the day came the galeot went on, and our other vessel made for Callao. She had been at the ports of the coast, visiting the ships she met and taking what was wanted out of them.
After those on board had behaved like corsairs, they arrived at the port of Santa, where they found a ship on her way from Panama to Lima, laden with merchandize and negroes. They took the vessel, placing a guard to prevent them from going until the Adelantado should arrive, to whom they gave the advice to take her as she was, for his better despatch, sending her value to the owners when God should provide it.
The Adelantado would not do this, nor consent that it should be done. The Vicar, zealous for the service of God, reprehended the Captain with sharp speeches, and told him that he was excommunicated, charging him to pay for what he had taken. Having done this he was absolved, and the business was closed. Here a soldier was punished, the reason being kept secret. Callao Castle ; 12 2' 34" S. Making sail, they anchored in the port of Cherrepe, which is that for the town of Santiago de Miraflores, where the Captain, Lope de Vega, had enlisted a good company of married people.
Here the Adelantado married this Captain to his sister-in-law, Mariana de Castro, giving him the title of Admiral. There was at anchor in this port a new and strong ship with a cargo of flour, sugar, and other things, bound to Panama. The officers of the Almiranta having made friends with those on board the other ship, they were persuaded, by means of efficacious reasoning, to let the General take her, and receive their vessel instead, which, owing to age and bad construction, they might well do, because thus the King would be better served.
But the Adelantado showed great annoyance at these intrigues, and replied that his ship was very good for the service on which it was to be employed.
Pedro Fernandes de Queirós - Wikipedia
Those who intended evil felt the good intention, and, in order to gain their end, they secretly made seven gimlet-holes in the ship, in order to oblige as they did oblige the soldiers to say that they would not go in a ship so unseaworthy if they could not take the other. In consequence of this, the Pilot and Master presented a petition to the Adelantado, setting forth that his ship was making a great deal of water, and was unsuited for so long and risky a voyage as she was intended to make ; and begging him to take the remedy that was at hand.
The Adelantado, seeing the deter- mination of all, and compelled by necessity, referred the matter to the Master of the Camp, before whom informa- tion was taken which proved what was wanted, and if more was wanted, more could be proved. So the General ordered the Master of the Camp to take the ship ; and that the carpenters should make an estimate of the excess of value over that of the vessels to be exchanged for it. They reported that the difference amounted to dols. There was a priest on board, who owned half the cargo. He protested vigorously against the injustice and robbery, when he saw the loss that he would sustain.
He made strong protests and claims on the ship, in his own name and in those of other interested parties. He sought the ship, stating that his remedy was there. He came and went to the Capitana with his complaints, but got no redress. It was said that a soldier gave him a push, and threatened to throw him overboard. The priest felt all this very deeply, and loudly declared that when he had to pray to our Lord, in his sacrifices, he would ask that the ship might never reach safety if she was unloaded.
The good priest caused great sorrow to the compassionate, both on account of the force with which he was treated and the loss of his property ; and the grief was doubled at the enterprise being one that was undertaken by their own masters, to whom he earnestly, but vainly, complained of his loss. At last the ship was unloaded, when the Adelantado satisfied the priest respecting his share, which somewhat quieted him.
The Adelantado also undertook to pay the difference before he came from the Solomon Islands to Peru, mortgaging to the creditors all his ships. The Adelantado felt and com- plained much of this proceeding, which had been forced upon him, and he threatened those who he believed to be the cause of it.
As the effects are seen in all things, and even in the justice of God are never wanting, it was understood that usually in that port there was much merchandize, collected in certain warehouses, from all those valleys, to be em- barked for Lima, Panama, and other places. They embarked some of these goods, with the owner, his wife and children. The Master of the Camp, because it was his ordinary and first thought not to keep the peace, had a certain slight difference with the Admiral, which, although trifling, appears to have been the beginning of disorders.
For if such exist, however small they be, when the Devil stirs them they revive. The Adelantado was very desirous of entering respectable men only ; and so, for reasons that moved him, he put certain men and women on shore. I well believed that he might have turned them all out, and proceeded alone on his voyage.
Here, for a slight cause, he turned out a sergeant. Who was the instigator the reader will pardon me for leaving it to be understood, for I am not a friend of telling, though it should be a bad affair. These things being settled, the Adelantado ordered the Chief Pilot to make five charts for the navigation, one for himself and four for each of the Pilots.
He was not to show more land on them than the coast of Peru from Arica to Payta, and two points north and south, on one side or the other, the one in 7 and the other in 12, and 1, leagues to the west of Lima, which, he said, was the extreme distance in longitude of the islands of which he was going in search, whose longitude was 1, leagues. The other 50 was to be added so as the better to arrive with some margin, and no more land was to be delineated lest some ship should steer to or desert to it.
The Admiral embarked on board the new ship, and the provisions were distributed, but they were not in such quantity nor so good as was necessary. The defects were made up by what the soldiers and other people bought, and by other means. The Corregidor of the district, Dom Bartolome de Villavicencio, arrived, and the goodwill he showed is admitted by the Admiral in his report. But as he saw, when he came, the overwork that was being exacted, he went to his house, taking with him all the Indians and horses that were helping us, so as to oblige us to depart.
This was the reason that induced the Adelantado to make sail, and pursue his course with only the water that the Chief Pilot had on board. Recognising such a serious defect, the Pilot represented that it was a terrible thing to start with half the jars empty, knowing that we had to enter the largest of the gulfs, and that it must be well considered, lest we should have to leave the land without taking the full supply of water needed for so long and doubtful a voyage. The Adelantado answered that the soldiers asked for it to be obtained in the ports where it was found to be very expensive, and that if a ration of half a gallon ought to be given, a pint might be served out.
To this the Chief Pilot replied that it was his duty to see to every- thing, and not to allow himself to be conquered by the importunities of people who did not know what they were asking. The Adelantado answered to this that he was convinced, and that he would settle the matter with them ; which he did with some good and some bad reasons. This done, they made sail, arriving at the port of Payta to take in water. Of what passed in the port of Payta, and how the fleet set sail and commenced the voyage. IN each port there was disorder, and as this is one of the best ports on the coast of Peru, the best quarrel was reserved for it.
The anger of the Master of the Camp, who excused no one, fell upon the Vicar respecting certain proceedings in his department. There were words between them ; and there would have been acts as well if the Adelantado had not been present to prevent them. But they remained angry and unfriendly. Bickerings also commenced between the Master of the Camp and the Captain Don Lorenzo, respecting luggage which some of the soldiers had with them.
The Master of the Camp gave a blow with a stick to a person of consideration. He said that he did not know about that, but that the party would know very well how how much a stick weighed. There was some disturbance ; the Master of the Camp drew his sword at which he was always ready and struck another soldier, who was annoyed at the blow given to his companion.
He fled, but was taken, and incontinently was to be punished. Dona Isabel came out to plead for him.
Pedro Fernandes de Queirós
The Master of the Camp showed himself to be so compliant that he threw down the stick and went on board ; but this was not that he might not give the Adelantado a faculty against the prisoner. The Chief Pilot would have interceded, but the Adelantado did not wish to hear him, saying that the man had put his hand in his beard, which was a sort of mutiny. At last, yielding to these prayers, the Adelantado set the prisoner free. The Master of the Camp had gone on shore, and presently he sent for his clothes. But as the Adelantado showed a wish that he should stay, the Admiral and Captain Don Lorenzo persuaded him to return to the ship.
It appeared to the Chief Pilot that it was very uncertain what would be the end, when the beginning was so dis- ordered. He, therefore, requested the Adelantado that he might be left behind ; and for this course he gave many reasons which did not appear to be bad. The Adelantado threw his arms round the Pilot's neck, declaring that only an angel could conduct things as he said, but that all should be put in good order, and that a remedy should be found. The Chief Pilot still insisted upon his dismissal, saying that where the General's person was, who so well understood the art of navigating, he might well be excused.
The Adelantado was much grieved on hearing this, and with his sagacity, he showed himself so kind and friendly, and used such honeyed words, that they induced the Pilot to remain. He went on board and, as he passed the ship, the sailors said: Sir Chief Pilot, what goings and comings are these? We are informed of what you think of doing, for no one wants to remain in this ship though it cost all their lives. At this time the Master of the Camp came up and said, in a loud voice: Let us go whence we came, and let him show himself for what he is.
For, though he works with diligence, we will advance forward such a Christian undertaking, and in this voyage we will truly serve God and the King. As I know the mischief that is done by such conduct, I wish to see the remedy, so as to comply with all my obligations. The Chief Pilot said that he must be both careful and moderate ; that as yet they were in Peru, and that the seamen had to bring them to the islands, and to guard the ship when they had arrived ; and that if they were aggrieved, as men, there would be serious trouble ; that they had to bring the news and return with succour, and speak well of the land, or evil though it was good, for revenge.
The Camp Master was not quieted with this argument, but was wedded to his own idea, and answered that men did not do what they were told at sea; that he had to make them stir quickly; and that all he had done was necessary that the fleet might not be disorganised, and that each man to his own office seemed good, and was in order. With this, and many other things that were said at the time, the incident was closed.
The two embarked, not very friendly, and the Adelan- tado engaged a man here, who gave him 2, dols. He embarked 1, jars of water, and gave instructions for the order that was to be maintained, and for the navigation that was to be carried out. They carried in the fleet persons by the list, of whom were capable of bearing arms ; arquebuses and other weapons, offensive and defensive, respecting which testimony was given before the Lieutenant of Payta to send to the King our Lord, as was done. The Island of Magdalena.
The winds were from the S. From thence the course was W. The sun was taken at noon, and having made the com- putation, the result was 10 50'. At 5 in the afternoon, an island was sighted 10 leagues distant, being N. He thought it was the land that he sought, for which reason he was very joyful in every one's sight, in that he had come in a short time with a fair wind, the victuals good, and the people amicable, healthy, and cheerful. During the voyage there had been fifteen marriages, scarcely a day passing without some one wanting to be married next day.
It seemed as if all would run in couples with the good fortune, 1 Magdalena is in 10 25' S. The Adelantado said to the Vicar and Chaplain that they were to chant the " Te Deum laudamus" with all the people on their knees, and that they should give thanks to God for the mercy of sighting land. This was done with great devotion. On the following day, with doubt whether that island was inhabited, the ships were steered to the south of it, and very near the coast.
From a point under a peaked hill towards the eastern end, there came out seventy small canoes, not all the same size, made of one piece of wood, with outriggers of cane on each side, after the manner of the gunwales of galleys, which reach to the water on which they press to prevent the canoe from capsizing, and all their paddles rowing. The least number they had in a canoe was three, the greatest ten, some swimming, and others hanging on altogether, four hundred natives, almost white, and of very graceful shape, well-formed, robust, good legs and feet, hands with long fingers ; good eyes, mouth, and teeth, and the same with the other features.
Their skin was clear, showing them to be a strong and healthy race, and indeed robust. They all came naked, without any part covered ; their faces and bodies in patterns of a blue colour, painted with fish and other patterns. Their hair was like that of women, very long and loose, some had it twisted, and they themselves gave it turns. Many of them were ruddy. They had beautiful youths who, for a people barbarous and naked, it was certainly pleasant to see ; and they had much cause to praise their Creator. Among them there was a boy, who appeared to be about ten years of age.
His eyes were fixed on the ship, and his countenance was like that of an angel, with an aspect and spirit that promised much, of a good colour, not fair but white ; his locks like that of a lady who valued them much. He was all that has been said, so that I never in my life felt such pain as when I thought that so fair a creature should be left to go to perdition.
They came to our ships, and when they arrived they gave us cocoa-nuts, a kind of food rolled up in leaves, good plantains, and large canes 2 full of water. They looked at the ships, the people, and the women who had come out on the galley to see them, at whom they looked, and laughed at the sight. They got one to put his hand on the ship, and, with coaxing, they got him to come on board. The Adelantado dressed him in a shirt and put a hat upon his head, which, when the others saw, they laughed and looked, crying out to the rest. On this about forty came on board, beside whom the Spaniards seemed of small stature.
Among them there was one taller than the rest by a head and shoulders, and taller than our best men, though we had one very tall. They began to walk about the ship with great boldness, taking hold of whatever was near them, and many of them tried the arms of the soldiers, touched them in several parts with their fingers, looked at their beards and faces, with other monkey tricks. As they saw that our men were dressed in various colours, they were confused ; so the soldiers bared their breasts, let down their stockings, and tucked up their sleeves to satisfy them.
When they were shown this, they quieted down, and were much pleased.
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The Adelantado and some of the soldiers gave them shirts, hats, and other trifling things, which they presently put round their necks, dancing and singing in their fashion, and loudly called to the others to look at what they had been given. Their conduct annoyed the Adelantado, who made signs to them to go ; but they not only would not leave the ship, but became more free in taking things they saw. Some cut slices from our bacon and meat with knives made of cane, and wanted to take other things. At last the Adelantado ordered a gun to be fired, and when they felt and heard it, with great terror, they all jumped into the water and swam to their canoes, only one remain- ing in the ship.
He was clinging on to the main channels, and they could not make him let go, until some one wounded him on the hand with a sword, which was shown to the others, and they took him into a canoe. At this time they fastened a rope to the ship's bowsprit, and, by rowing, tried to tow her on shore, thinking they could thus take her. When the native was wounded, they all became warlike, and were marshalled by one who carried a parasol of palm leaves. Among them was one old man with a long and well-ordered beard, who cast fierce looks from his eyes, put both hands into his beard, raised his moustaches, stood up, and cried out, looking in many directions.
They played on shells, and striking with their paddles in the canoes they showed their hostility: With good will, they began to hurl stones, and wounded a soldier ; but first they had come near the ship, and those with lances threatened to throw them. The soldiers pointed their arquebuses, but, as it had been raining, the powder would not ignite. At last, the old man who made the menaces was shot in the forehead, and fell dead, with seven or eight others, while some were wounded. They fled from our ships, and presently three natives came in a canoe, calling out.
One held up a green branch, and something white in his hand, which appeared to be a sign of peace. They seemed to be asking us to come to their port ; but this was not done, and they departed, leaving some cocoa-nuts. This island has a circumference of about 10 leagues, so far as we could see. It is clear and open towards the sea, lofty and wooded in the ravines, which is where the natives live. The port is on the south side. It is in latitude 10 S. It is thickly inhabited ; for, besides those who came in the canoes, the beaches and rocks were covered with people.
The Adelan- tado did not know the place, and, being undeceived, he said it was not one of the islands he came in search of, but a new discovery. How three other islands were sighted, their names, and how they came to a port in that of Santa Cristina. AT a short distance from this island three other islands were sighted, for which a course was shaped. The first, to which the Adelantado gave the name of San Pedro, was 10 leagues W. It was not ascer- tained whether it was inhabited, because it was not visited. It is about 4 leagues in circumference, with much forest, but apparently not very high.
At the east end there is a rock at a short distance from the coast. The island is beautiful to look upon, and runs N. It has fine plains and mountains, is thickly inhabited, with many groves of trees. To the south of Dominica there is another island to which the name of Santa Cristina was given. It seemed to be about n leagues in circumference, and is a little over a league from Dominica, with a clear and deep channel between them.
The Adelantado named all four islands together " Las Marquesas de Mendoza," in memory of the Marquis of Canete ; because by this, and in making sail with his ships from any port, he wished to show how grateful he was for the assistance given by that Viceroy in the despatch of the expedition. While tacking off and on, and seeking a port in the island of Dominica, many canoes full of natives came out, who seemed to be of a browner colour, and crying out, showed the same good will as the others. In one canoe there came an old man, carrying a green branch and some- thing white.
At this moment the ship was put about, and, thinking that she was going away, the old man began to renew his shouts, make signs with his hair, and pointing downwards with his hair and fingers. The Adelantado wanted to return, but he could not do so because the wind freshened, and no sheltered port for anchoring could be seen: On the following day the General sent the Camp Master in the boat with twenty soldiers, to seek for a port or a watering place on the island of Santa Cristina.
Many natives came out in canoes, and surrounded them. Our people, wishing to make themselves safe, killed some of them. Clasped together, they were sent to the bottom by a shot from an arquebus that one of the soldiers fired off. He said afterwards, with great sorrow, that the Devil had to take those who were ordained to be taken. The Chief Pilot said to him that he regretted that he had not fired in the air, but the soldier said that he acted as he did lest he should lose his reputation as a good marks- man.
The Chief Pilot asked him what it would serve him to enter into hell with the fame of being a good shot? The Camp Master returned without having found either a port or a watering place. At the same time four very daring natives had gone on board the ship, and while no one was looking, one of them took a small dog, which was the gift of the Camp Master.
Then, with a shout they all jumped overboard with great courage, and swam to their canoes. The next day, which was St. James's day, the General again sent the Camp Master, with twenty soldiers, to the island of Santa Cristina to find a watering place and a port He effected a landing with the men in good order, and surrounded a village while the inhabitants stood looking on.
The Camp Master called to them, and about three hundred came. Our people then drew a line, telling the natives by signs that they were not to go beyond it. On asking for water they brought some in cocoa nuts, and the women brought other kinds of fruit. The soldiers said that many of these women were very pretty, and that they were ready to come near in friendly intercourse, and to give their presents with their hands.
The Camp Master sent the natives for water with the jars, but they made signs that our people should carry them ; running off with four jars, for which reason we opened fire on them. The General, having seen the port into which the Camp Master had gone, ordered the ship to be taken into it and anchored. There was great con- sternation at the obvious danger.
Sail was made, and God was served that a breeze should spring up, and the ship stood off. Then there came another report that the port was bad, full of sunken rocks, and that it was impossible to get out again if a ship had once entered. The Adelantado was much annoyed to hear the complaints of the hard work, and was moved to continue the voyage, saying that the water they had on board would be suffi- cient for the voyage to his islands.
The Chief Pilot reminded him of the uncertainties of the sea, to which he answered: Meanwhile, the Camp Master had been coasting along the island ; and very near the port that had been entered he found another, which he reported, and there the fleet anchored. How the Adelantado landed on the island of Santa Cristina, and what took place with the natives. ON the day after the arrival, which was the 28th of July, the Adelantado went on shore, with his wife and the greater part of the crew, to hear the first mass said by the Vicar.
The natives knelt down in silence and attention, imitating all they saw the Christians do. A very beautiful native sat near Dona Isabel, with such red hair that Dona Isabel wished to cut off a few locks ; but seeing that the native did not like it she desisted, not wishing to make her angry. The Camp Master remained on shore with all the soldiers, who in a short time began to quarrel among them- selves. Then the natives threw many stones and lances, wounding one soldier in the foot, without doing any other harm.
They then fled to the mountains with their women and children, our people following them, until they were all in the woods. Being fired at, the natives reached the summits of three high hills, where they entrenched them- selves. In the mornings and afternoons they all, with one accord, made a resounding noise, which echoed through the ravines, and was replied to by shouts. They wished to do us harm, hurling stones and lances, but their efforts were in vain. The Camp Master placed guards in three positions to secure the village and the beach, where the women were resting and the sailors getting wood and water for the ships.
What I have to say is, that some of these natives, being strong and courageous, used arrows, while there were not wanting others who seemed more cautious. They were very diligent to attack ; but seeing how little harm they did, and how much hurt they received from the arquebuses, they tried to establish peace and friendship. For when the soldiers went to their work, they came out to them lovingly, offering them bunches of plantains and other fruits.
It seemed that they felt the want of their houses, for they asked, by signs, when the Spaniards would go. Torres successfully reached Manila , the center of the Spanish East Indies in May , after charting the southern coastline of New Guinea on the way and in doing so sailing through the strait that now bears his name, between Australia and New Guinea. Regarded as a crank, he spent the next seven years writing numerous accounts of his voyage and begging King Philip III for money for a new voyage.
He was finally despatched to Peru with letters of support, but the king had no real intention of funding another expedition. He had married Dona Ana Chacon of Madrid in , who bore him one son and one daughter. Some time between and , written accounts of the Torres expedition were seen by British Admiralty Hydrographer Alexander Dalrymple. The table below gives a summary of the memorials, including the classification systems used by four different scholars: The Archbishop of Sydney from to , Patrick Francis Moran , asserted this to be a fact, and it was taught in Catholic schools for many years.
The heavily political overtones of the poem caused it to be coldly received at a time when much politics in Australia was still coloured by Catholic-Protestant sectarianism. The Australian writer John Toohey published a novel, Quiros , in The British writer Robert Graves describes the expedition in his historical novel , The Islands of Unwisdom , written in In its introduction he describes his sources. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Portuguese footballer, see Pedro Fernandes footballer. Bitter indeed the chalice that he drank For no man's pride accepts to cheap a rate As not to call on Heaven to vindicate His worth together with the cause he served.
A Study in Identification". The Journal of the Polynesian Society. Lodewyckx, "The Name of Australia: State Library of New South Wales. The Mitchell Library, Sydney: Retrieved 20 August